In light of the rapid growth of cities and peri-urban areas over the past few decades, the majority of the population now lives in urban areas. Since urban growth is mainly unplanned, uncontrolled, and under-financed, health problems in the cities are aggravated. These conditions overwhelm the capacity of municipal authorities to provide basic health, environmental services, and infrastructure which are minimum pre-
requisites for a healthy population.
Public health involves society's efforts to promote and restore the health and living conditions of the society. Public markets and farmer’s markets not only offer foodstuff and clothing but also play an important role in the public health of the users. Markets are an essential part of the community; this is where transactions and exchange of basic human needs occur.
In light of this, we need to improve the conditions where this social exchange happens, and to do this, we need to promote healthy markets. The purpose of this study is to document the current scenarios of the market. i.e., the sanitary conditions in the market, the typologies of the stalls in the markets and how they influence the health conditions in the market and the infrastructure of the market in terms of the
electrical lines, drainage system and solid waste management and finally, to identify the factors that influence the implementation of public health in markets and offer appropriate solutions.
This study is guided by the following objectives: Documentation of the existing scenario in the Toi market concerning Public Health, analyze the shortcomings of infrastructure and sanitation in Toi Market, and recommend the appropriate ways to improve sanitation and the infra-structure in Toi Market to implement Public health.
CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND OF STUDY
“Various arms of the government are mandated to ensure that this is done. They include public health officers, the inspectorate department of the City Council of Nairobi, and other civil administrators. In cases where public health standards are not maintained, the public health officers in charge of such markets have been empowered to order market closures.” Public Health Act, Cap 242 (1986).
City Council of Nairobi markets have not been excluded from occasional closures in the past. According to (Humphrey & Program, 2015) the consumers and vendors have the right to be provided with toilets that are in good sanitary conditions.
Basic sanitation has been defined as having access to excreta disposal facilities which in-clude; a sewer, septic tank, a pour-flush latrine, a simple pit latrine, and a well-ventilated improved latrine. The toilets presently in the market places are unsanitary and in poor con-ditions, improving the conditions of the toilets and provide decent spaces to reduce the risks of spreading diseases.
This study seeks to solve the problem in an architectural aspect, poor infrastructure of the market typologies, poor spatial definition of the market opens spaces, poor way finding through the marketplace, poor sanitary conditions in terms of solid waste management, and poor drainage. This study also aims to examine the factors that are considered as a hindrance to the implementation and maintenance of public health standards in markets.