COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL MAASAI BUILT FORMS.

ABSTRACT
The prominence of the Pastoral Maasai built forms has led to the notion that they are the only kind that exist. Agricultural Maasai built
forms end up playing second fiddle to the more documented and better known Pastoral built forms. This thesis therefore seeks to
document Agricultural Maasai bult forms and to compare them with the Pasroral Maasai ones.
Literature review of the Pastoral Maasai derives several cultural and architectural constants. The cultural aspects of theiir lives are that
the society is patrilenial, permits polygamy, is egalitarian. They are a people that value privacy seperating functions and roles based on
gender. They are monotheistic worshipping only Enkai. Maasai cultural constants can therefore be summed up as kinship, human
functionality, social ties and mythology. The basis of comparison of Agricultural and Pastoral Maasai built forms include ; building
materials and technology, various built forms in the homestead, settlment patterns and built forms for different ceremonies of the
Maasai.
The area selected for fieldwork is Mukulat Village in Ngaramtoni area in Arusha, Tanzania. The author studies and documents ten
homesteads.Observation and interviews were the key data collection methods the author employed during data collection in
Ngaramtoni, Arusha. Freehand sketches, measured drawings and photography were utilized in presenting research findings.
Findings from the field reveal that there are about four homestead typologies among the Agricultural Maasai. They are governed by
their culture and especially the family set up. Materials used to build are sourced within the locality. Family farms are in close
proximity to the home. Agricultural Maasai have strong kinship ties but have less communalism as compared to their Pastoral
counterparts.
Research findings are in line with literature review in terms of the building materials used-both Agricultural and Pastoral Maasai use
timber, cow dung, earth and ash as their primary construction materials; items of materialartifacts used in the homestead culture are
the same in function, symbolism and meaning. Both Pastoral and Agricultural Maasai organise their homesteads according to the
nuclear and segmental planning systems as discussed in literature on Chapter 2. Pastoral and Agricultural Maasai however differ on
main economic activity, shapes of some built forms and the nature and utility of architecture for cultural ceremonies.
The author recommends regionalism and sustainability concepts to architects and developers undertaking projects in Maasai regions.
The thesis recommends several areas of further studies such as the documentation of built forms for other Maa speakers like the
Njemps who practice fishing.

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