This study investigates brick architecture in order to draw key lessons for its application to sustainable development in Africa’s hot-dry climates. The study addresses the unsustainable trends observed in brick architecture which are characterised by ina

Urbanization is a fundamental transformation of society with far reaching economic, social,
cultural and political consequences, (Tanuer Feldt and Ljung 2006). The warm-humid cities
are experiencing unprecedented urban growth rates with an expected period of 60 years of
urban transformation. This rapid urbanization and vast migration from rural to urban areas have
produced variations in the urban tissue clearly manifested in climatic variation within a city.
Africa’s rapid urbanization rate has been a cause for headaches, posing a great challenge
for politicians, urban designers, architects and the society in general. Of no exception to
this phenomenon is the archipelago of Zanzibar, as it has been -and it still is- experiencing
revolutionary urban growth spanning more than a century of growth and transformation. With a
high population growth rate of 2.6% in urban areas, the urban growth has had major impacts on
the urban environment and quality of life in Zanzibar city.
Traditionally it was, for a long time, assumed that the main cause of urban climate anomaly was
the thermal properties of the buildings, but that has since changed after the 1970s, when new
evidence indicated that the urban geometry has a more significant importance on the Urban Heat
Island (UHI) phenomenon. Various investigations dedicated to studying the urban microclimate
indicate that the built geometry, in urban centres, is the top contributory factor to the UHI
phenomenon. Among other causative factors of UHI is the heat released from anthropogenic
sources. The relationship between the urban environment and the microclimate of urban centres
has been comprehended for a greater part of the last century leading to various research efforts
into the same.

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